The Chinese who emigrated were almost exclusively of Cantonese origin. Hundreds of thousands of Chinese men in the United States, mostly of Taishan Cantonese descent, have emigrated to the United States. In many states, anti-miscegenation laws prohibited Chinese men from marrying white women.  After the Emancipation Proclamation, many intermarriage was not registered in some states, and historically, Chinese-American men married African-American women in proportion to their total number of marriages, as few were Chinese-American women in the United States. After the Emancipation Proclamation, many Chinese Americans emigrated south, especially to Arkansas, to work on the plantations. For example, the tenth U.S. Census of Louisiana in 1880 counted 57% of interracial marriages between these Chinese with black women and 43% with white women.  Between 20 and 30 percent of Chinese living in Mississippi married black women before 1940.  In a genetic study of 199 samples of African-American men, one of them belonged to haplogroup O2a (or 0.5%)  It was discovered by historian Henry Louis Gates, Jr. in the documentary miniseries African American Lives that NASA astronaut Mae Jemison has a significant genetic mix (more than 10%) from East Asia. Gates hypothesized that intermarriage/relationships between Chinese migrant workers in the 19th century and black or African-American slaves or former slaves may have contributed to their ethnic genetic makeup.
By the mid-1850s, 70 to 150 Chinese were living in New York City, and 11 of them were marrying Irish women. In 1906, the New York Times (6,300 white (Irish-American) women were married to Chinese in New York, and many more lived together. In 1900, based on Liang`s research, he estimated that of the 120,000 men from more than 20 Chinese communities in the United States, one in twenty Chinese (Cantonese) men were married to white women.  In the 1960s, the census showed that 3500 Chinese men were married to white women and 2900 Chinese women were married to white men. It also showed 300 Chinese men married to black women and vice versa 100.  Today, about 19 percent of marriages in the Chicago area over the past five years have been between people of different races or ethnicities, according to Pew Research. While the decision did not directly address laws prohibiting interracial marriage, it laid the groundwork for a decision that definitely did. According to a 2013 analysis of census data from the Pew Research Center, 12 percent of newlyweds married someone of a different race. (This proportion does not take into account “interethnic” marriages between Hispanics and non-Hispanics.)  And most Americans say they approve of mixed racial or ethnic marriages — not only in the abstract, but also in their own families. Chinese immigrants and other Asian men emigrated to Australia and married Australian Aboriginal women.
In 1913, anthropologist and temporary chief protector Walter Baldwin Spencer opposed these intermarriages, showing clear prejudices against mixing native women and Asian men (as opposed to white men), claiming that their sexual contact caused “a rapid degeneration of natives.”   More than a century later, opponents of same-sex marriage would make the same argument again by arguing that heterosexual marriage laws do not discriminate on the basis of sex because they technically punish men and women equally. In Latin America, most of the population is descended from Indians, Europeans and Africans. They formed the mestizo and mulatto populations that populate the countries of Latin America. Intermarriage and interaction took place on a larger scale than in most places in the world. In some countries, Asian immigrants also intermarried. About 300,000 Cantonese coolies and migrants (almost all men) from the 19th to the 20th century and migrants were shipped to Latin America, many had been married or had sex with women of different racial backgrounds such as Africans, Mullato, Europeans, mestizos, etc. It is estimated that 100,000 Chinese came to Peru, only 15 were women, and in Cuba, the census for 1872 only recorded only 32 Chinese women compared to 58,368 Chinese men.  In total, about 140,000 Chinese men went to Cuba between 1847 and 1874, and another 100,000 to Peru between 1849 and 1874.  Most Creoles in Reunion, who are of mixed ancestry and constitute the majority of the population. Interracial marriages between European men and Chinese men with African, Indian, Chinese, Malagasy women were also common.
In 2005, a genetic study of the interbreeding of Réunion revealed the following. For maternal (mitochondrial) DNA, haplogroups are Indian (44%), East Asian (27%), European/Middle Eastern (19%) or African (10%). Indian lines are M2, M6 and U2i, East Asian lines are E1, D5a, M7c and F (E1 and M7c are also only found in Southeast Asia and Madagascar), European/Middle Eastern lines are U2e, T1, J, H and I, and African lines are L1b1, L2a1, L3b and L3e1.  Now, alongside these research and policy interests, Dr. Roberts is collaborating on the exploration and execution of her next book project on an institutionally influenced but much more personal topic: interracial marriage and racial equality in Chicago, Illinois from 1937-67. She was particularly interested in the work of her late father – Robert E.T. Roberts, an anthropologist at Roosevelt University in Chicago – as she continued to make discoveries about her work and life as a researcher. As part of this project, Dr. Roberts discovered that his mother, Iris Roberts, met Robert Roberts as a research associate for his book project, which was never published in book form.
Robert Roberts has spent decades researching black-and-white marriages in the United States to show how interpersonal relationships combat racial prejudice, break down socially segregated boundaries, and catalyze an American society striving for racial equality. Dr. Roberts worked diligently to grow with her family`s stories, the families they researched, and her own experiences with this project, discovering new layers at each stage of the book project. She commissioned my colleague Jack and I to conduct secondary research on topics of interest to Robert Roberts, as well as archival research on the children of interracial couples in Chicago, using interview boxes conducted by Robert Roberts` team and inherited from Dr. Roberts. They created competition between two groups who thought groups were formed on the basis of similarity. Once hostility between the groups was detected, participants watched as a member of a group member (confederate) performed a task with someone outside the group (also a confederate). The participant observed how the Swiss behaved differently depending on the condition observed.
In the positive state, the Confederates embraced and greeted each other as already existing friends (positive state). In the neutral state, the Confederates were polite to each other, but not necessarily friendly. In the enemy state, the Confederates behaved as if they were already existing enemies. Participants who were in a positive state rated the outer group more positively on negative traits such as “unyielding” and positive traits such as “intelligent.” They concluded that simply observing a positive group member behaving positively towards an external group member increases positive feelings towards the external group.  This is an advantage of interracial marriages because they tend to involve families and friends of interracial partners who come together and build relationships with each other. Therefore, this diversity within a family system can improve open communication for individuals so that they have a better understanding of different people`s perspectives. [ref. In Malaysia and Singapore, the majority of inter-ethnic marriages take place between Chinese and Indians.
The descendants of these marriages are unofficially called “Chindian”.